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Summary

Malaysia’s GERD has increased since 2008. At RM17,685 million, GERD in 2016 is three times that in 2008 . In addition, GERD per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has improved from 0.79% in 2008 to 1.44% in 2016, closing in on the National Policy on Science, Technology & Innovation (NPSTI) target of 2.0%.

Summary

The figure show that the Business Enterprise (BE) sector has remained as the largest contributor to spur of R&D activities in Malaysia until 2016. The Business Enterprise (BE) sector is major exploiter on that year (RM10,006 million, 56.58%). The second major contributer in R&D is Higher Learning Institution (HLI), with the value of RM6,041 million (34.16%). Vice versa, the minor contributer goes to Government Research Institutes (GRI) RM1,627 million (9.20%) and Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO) RM12 million (0.06%).

Summary

The largest proportion of the R&D labour force are researchers, followed by support staff and technicians. After almost doubling its share (28.5 to 55.4) between 2008 and 2010, the R&D personnel and researchers per 10,000 labour force has steadily increased to 74.0 in 2016. The NPSTI policy target of 70 researchers per 10,000 labour force by 2020 was already exceeded in 2016.